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Sports Psychology – Performing with Others

5. Improving Team Performance

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In this lecture, we think about strategies to improve team performance, focusing in particular on: (i) team goal setting, which involves working together to collectively establish goals for a team and integrating the goals of individual team members with those goals of the team as a whole; (ii) differentiating outcome, performance and process goal types; (iii) the importance of role clarity in the effectiveness of goal setting; (iv) the 3R model of team togetherness, which includes reflection, representation and realisation; (v) research which has found that implementing the 3R model has a positive impact on team performance.


In this course, Dr Matthew Slater (Staffordshire University) explores how we perform with others in sport and exercise. In the first lecture, we think about cohesion and the factors which make up Carron’s model of cohesion. In the second lecture, we think about social identity, split into social identity theory and self-categorisation theory. In the third lecture, we think about how our understanding of leadership has developed over time. Next, we work through Smith and colleagues’ 1979 study on coach effectiveness training. In the fifth and final lecture, we think about two key strategies to improve team performance as team goal setting and the 3R model.


Dr Matthew Slater is associate professor in the School of Health, Science and Wellbeing at Staffordshire University. Dr Slater’s research interests include the social identity approach to leadership, team functioning and psychophysiological responses to stress. Some of Dr Slater’s recent publications include 'Cognitive appraisals and team performance under stress: A simulation study' (2020) and 'A brief mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention: investigating the effects with recreational runners' (2020).

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APA style

Slater, M. (2022, May 10). Sports Psychology – Performing with Others - Improving Team Performance [Video]. MASSOLIT.

MLA style

Slater, M. "Sports Psychology – Performing with Others – Improving Team Performance." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 10 May 2022,

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