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Sports Psychology – Performing with Others

1. Cohesion

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In this lecture, we think about cohesion, focusing in particular on: (i) Carron’s 1985 definition of cohesion pertaining to the unity of a team in the pursuit of goals; (ii) the nature of cohesion as a dynamic process which can be improved; (iii) cohesion as split into task and social cohesion; (iv) the four determinants of cohesion, according to Carrons model, being environmental, team, personal and leadership factors; (iv) Carron’s group environment questionnaire (GEQ), which serves as a measure of cohesion; (v) research, which has found that more cohesive teams perform better in sport.


In this course, Dr Matthew Slater (Staffordshire University) explores how we perform with others in sport and exercise. In the first lecture, we think about cohesion and the factors which make up Carron’s model of cohesion. In the second lecture, we think about social identity, split into social identity theory and self-categorisation theory. In the third lecture, we think about how our understanding of leadership has developed over time. Next, we work through Smith and colleagues’ 1979 study on coach effectiveness training. In the fifth and final lecture, we think about two key strategies to improve team performance as team goal setting and the 3R model.


Dr Matthew Slater is associate professor in the School of Health, Science and Wellbeing at Staffordshire University. Dr Slater’s research interests include the social identity approach to leadership, team functioning and psychophysiological responses to stress. Some of Dr Slater’s recent publications include 'Cognitive appraisals and team performance under stress: A simulation study' (2020) and 'A brief mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention: investigating the effects with recreational runners' (2020).

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APA style

Slater, M. (2022, May 10). Sports Psychology – Performing with Others - Cohesion [Video]. MASSOLIT.

MLA style

Slater, M. "Sports Psychology – Performing with Others – Cohesion." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 10 May 2022,

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