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Research Methods – Probability

3. Significance and Normality

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About this Lecture

Lecture

In this lecture, we think about significance and normality, focusing in particular on: (i) recapping the idea of a critical value and understanding what it means alongside a probability level; (ii) the importance of evaluating percentage chance against number of events, returning again to the example of the coin flip; (iii) considering critical values in both one- and two-tailed tests; (iv) using the example of IQ scores to demonstrate the function of a normal distribution in recognising statistical significance.

Course

In this course, Dr Ayoub Bouguettaya (University of Birmingham) explores probability within the field of statistics. In the first lecture, we look to understand what statistics are and why they matter. In the second lecture, we think about statistical testing as a function of the null hypothesis, and what it means to reject a null. In the third lecture, we think about significance and normality, including the importance of evaluating percentages and probability against the number of events/incidences being tested. Next, we think about types of statistical tests, with a focus on t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, Spearman’s Rho, and the Chi-squared test. In the fifth lecture, we think about the two main types of errors: type 1 and type 2, and their consequences in different settings. In the sixth and final lecture, we think about some controversies in the field of statistics, including p-hacking and the use of Bayesian statistics.

Lecturer

Dr Ayoub Bouguettaya is a lecturer in the School of Psychology at the University of Birmingham. Dr Bouguettaya’s research interests are in social psychology and how knowledge from that field can be applied to others, particularly health, including how we can apply social identity theory to societal problems, as well as investigating the different perspectives one might take on those issues. Some of Dr Bouguettaya’s recent publications include 'The relationship between gambling advertising and gambling attitudes, intentions and behaviours: a critical and meta-analytic review' (2020) and 'The Effect of a Food Addiction Explanation Model for Weight Control and Obesity on Weight Stigma' (2020).

Cite this Lecture

APA style

Bouguettaya, A. (2022, March 18). Research Methods – Probability - Significance and Normality [Video]. MASSOLIT. https://www.massolit.io/courses/research-methods-probability/significance-and-normality

MLA style

Bouguettaya, A. "Research Methods – Probability – Significance and Normality." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 18 Mar 2022, https://www.massolit.io/courses/research-methods-probability/significance-and-normality

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