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Milton: Paradise Lost: Religious and Literary Background

6. The Fall in 17th-Century England

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In this module, we outline the two most prominent views concerning the Fall in 17th-Century England. The more pessimistic view, outlined by William Ames in a treatise called 'The Marrow of Sacred Divinity' (1623) suggests that the actions of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden has irrevocably ruined mankind's ability to communicate with one another, as well as and irreparably impairing our moral, mental, and physical faculties. A more positive view of the Fall is provided by Francis Bacon in his treatise 'The Advancement of Learning' (1605), which concludes that the Fall has only impinged on mankind's ability to make moral judgements; it does not impinge on the natural world nor on human attempts at progress through intellectual endeavour.


In this course, Dr Edmund White (University of Oxford) explores the religious and literary background of Paradise Lost. This course provides an introduction to the religious culture of seventeenth-century England, and shows how this culture influenced the composition of Milton’s epic poem, Paradise Lost. This course falls into two halves. In the first half: we explore the principal Christian ideas that feature in Milton’s narration of the fall of Adam and Eve; in the second half, we look at the political implications of the religious ideas articulated in Paradise Lost. In both halves, we take examples from key moments of the poem, as well as from other writings by Milton and his seventeenth-century contemporaries.


Dr Edmund White completed his D. Phil. in English Literature at the University of Oxford in January 2014. Supervised by Sharon Achinstein, the title of his thesis was “The Concept of Discipline: Poetry, Rhetoric, and the Church in the Works of John Milton”. The main interest of his research thus far has been in the intersection between mainstream ecclesiastical politics and literature in Milton's works. Discipline, his thesis argues, is a complex concept in Milton's writing, that develops over time: whereas it denotes coercive and persuasive ecclesiastical power in his early prose, his later poetry treats the concept in terms of personal, moral piety.

His future research will seek to compare Milton’s understanding of piety in his later works with the pieties advocated by other contemporaries of different confessional persuasions: Bunyan, Baxter, Traherne, Vaughan.

Cite this Lecture

APA style

White, E. (2018, August 15). Milton: Paradise Lost: Religious and Literary Background - The Fall in 17th-Century England [Video]. MASSOLIT.

MLA style

White, E. "Milton: Paradise Lost: Religious and Literary Background – The Fall in 17th-Century England." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 15 Aug 2018,

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