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Gender – Gender Development

5. Atypical Gender

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About this Lecture


In this lecture, we think about atypical gender, focusing in particular on: (i) how gender dysphoria is defined as a the feelings resulting from a mismatch between a person’s biological sex and gender identity; (ii) the harmful impact on daily life and mental health that gender dysphoria can have; (iii) the nature and variety of non-binary gender identities; (iv) the key distinction between gender dysphoria and the common exploration of gender that most young children go through; (v) potential biological causes of gender dysphoria, including the size of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; (vi) research into the genetic basis/heritability of gender dysphoria and the limitations of that research; (vii) psychoanalytic theory of gender dysphoria, which only applies to men; (viii) cognitive theories of gender dysphoria.


In this course, Dr Christine McKnight (Cardiff Metropolitan University) explores gender development and dysphoria. In the first lecture, we think about sex, gender, and androgyny, as well as gender stereotypes. In the second lecture, we think about the roles of hormones and chromosomes, and the consequences of atypical hormone patterns. In the third lecture, we think about cognitive and psychodynamic explanations of gender, including theories from Piaget, Kohlberg, and Freud. Next, we think about the role of social learning theory in gender development. In the fifth and final lecture, we think about atypical gender, including the links between gender dysphoria and non-binary gender identities.


Dr Christine McKnight is a sexual health outreach worker at Aneurin Bevan University Health Board and lecturer and Cardiff Metropolitan University. Dr McKnight works in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and has research interests in fields such as contraceptive taking behaviour and its effects on health. One of Dr McKnight’s recent publications is 'Models of health behaviour predict intention to use long-acting reversible contraception' (2016).

Cite this Lecture

APA style

McKnight, C. (2022, May 19). Gender – Gender Development - Atypical Gender [Video]. MASSOLIT.

MLA style

McKnight, C. "Gender – Gender Development – Atypical Gender." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 19 May 2022,

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