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Forensic Psychology – Dealing with Offenders

4. Restorative Justice

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In this fourth and final module, we think about restorative justice, focusing in particular on: (i) understanding restorative justice as where a criminal meets their victim, which can be face-to-face or other correspondence, or where a group of criminals meet a victim of the crime type that they have all committed; (ii) restorative justice as an alternative to imprisonment, which can reduce recidivism; (iii) Stern’s view that non-prison penalties have a more positive impact on both the criminal and the victim; (iv) the ethos of restorative justice in providing an identity to both the criminal from the victim’s perspective, and vice versa; (v) the role that restorative justice plays in public protection, by ensuring that the offender is rehabilitated and is no longer a threat to the public.


This course, by Professor Ciarán O’Keeffe (Buckinghamshire New University), explores how the judicial system deals with offenders, from both a punishment arm and a rehabilitation arm. In the first module, we think about dealing with offenders from a punitive perspective by exploring the four custodial aims: deterrent, incapacitation, retribution, and rehabilitation. In the second module, we think about behaviour modification as the first form of rehabilitation, understanding it as an application of operant conditioning. Next, we think about anger management as another form of rehabilitation, including the three stages of cognitive behavioural techniques application, and Ainsworth’s three stages of an anger management programme. In the fourth and final module, we think about restorative justice as the last form of rehabilitation, discussing its benefits for both the offender and the victim.


Ciarán O’Keeffe is associate professor at Buckinghamshire New University. He specialises in both forensic and criminal psychology, as well as parapsychology (the study of mental phenomena which are inexplicable by conventional psychology). Professor O’Keeffe’s background is in investigative psychology and now teaches across a range of forensic and criminal psychology courses. He has made numerous television and radio appearances alongside an array of celebrities.

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APA style

O'Keeffe, C. (2022, March 29). Forensic Psychology – Dealing with Offenders - Restorative Justice [Video]. MASSOLIT.

MLA style

O'Keeffe, Ciarán. "Forensic Psychology – Dealing with Offenders – Restorative Justice." MASSOLIT, uploaded by MASSOLIT, 29 Mar 2022,

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